PHP Manual
Working with files

Construct include

11. 09. 2019

Obsah článku

| Support | PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7

|---------------|--------- | Short Description | Appends another text file or script to the script. | Requirements | Other text file or script to be inserted. | Note | Cannot load external files.


Inserts another text file or script into the page. Supports plain/text files.

Embedded files behave as if they were directly in the page.

Embedded scripts are automatically executed.

The embedded script transfers the value of variables.

Cannot be loaded from external storage. Can only read plain unformatted text and PHP files.

Allowed path formats:

  • script.php - file in the same directory, will be executed
  • script.html - file in the same directory, will not be executed
  • ./file.php - file in the same directory, will be executed
  • ../page.html
  • folder\file\file.php - write in Windows
  • address/DalsiAddress/file.php - write on Unix systems

Slashes of type **** and **/** can interconvert, so you don't have to deal with that.

Illegal path entry: https://domena.pripona/slozka/soubor.php

Similar functions


include 'file.php';

Inserts the file.php script into the page and executes it.


$color = 'green';
$fruit = 'apple';


$color = '';
$fruit = '';
echo 'A ' . $color . ' ' . $fruit; // A
include 'vars.php';
echo 'A ' . $color . ' ' . $fruit; // A green apple

WARNING: The following notation is not possible, transfer the contents of variables by defining them!

include 'file.php?parameter=neco';

Return values

None, just inserts the file.

NOTE: Allows you to compare file contents, but this is a security risk. The order of the brackets matters! Example:

if ((include 'file.php') == 'OK') {
echo 'The value is "OK"';

This is a potential security risk!

Can be solved with file_get_contents(), readfile() or fopen(). Fopen() should only be used on .txt and .html files.

A safer way to read a file is to define a custom function.


$string = get_include_contents('somefile.php');
function get_include_contents(string $filename): ?string
if (is_file($filename)) {
include (string) $filename;
return ob_get_clean();
return null;

Notes and tips from other developers

Jakub Vrána wrote to me in the mail:

include 'articles/' . $_GET['clanek'] . '.html';

This is extremely dangerous.

An attacker can pass a link to another directory using ../ or something similar as the article name, and sometimes it is possible to get rid of the ending by passing a null byte at the end.

You should at least use the basename() function, but better to allow only whitelist values.

Jan Barášek   Více o autorovi

Autor článku pracuje jako seniorní vývojář a software architekt v Praze. Navrhuje a spravuje velké webové aplikace, které znáte a používáte. Od roku 2009 nabral bohaté zkušenosti, které tímto webem předává dál.

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